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Contents

UNIX

Shell Basics

What is the Shell?

Commonly Used Shells

What Happens at Login?

Logging In and General Orientation

A Typical Terminal Session

Logging In and Out

The Shell - Command Interpretation

Command Line Format

The Secondary Prompt

The Manual

Content of the Manual Pages

The Online Manual

Some Beginning Commands

The id Command

The who Command

The date Command

The passwd Command

The echo Command

The banner Command

The clear Command

The mesg Command

Laboratory

Navigating the File System

What is a File System?

The Tree Structure

The File System Hierarchy

Path Names

Some Special Directories

Basic File System Commands

pwd - Present Working Directory

ls - List Contents of a Directory

cd - Change Directory

The find Command

  • Note: Needs to be reviewed and updated.

mkdir and rmdir - Create and Remove Directories

The File System - Summary

Laboratory

Managing Files

What is a File

What Can We Do with Files?

File Characteristics

cat - Display the Contents of a File

more - Display the Contents of a File

tail - Display the End of a File

cp - Copy Files

mv - Move or Rename Files

ln - Link Files

rm - Remove Files

Laboratory

File Permissions and Access

File Permissions and Access

Who Has Access to a File?

Types of Access

Permissions

chmod - Change Permissions of a File

umask - Permission Mask

touch - Update Timestamp of a File

chown - Change File Ownership

The chgrp Command

su - Switch User ID

The newgrp Command

Access Control Lists

Laboratory

POSIX Shell Features

Aliasing

File Name Completion

Command History

Re-entering Commands

Recalling Commands

Command Line Editing

The User Environment

Settings Shell Variables

Two Important Variables?

The Shell Startup Files

Shell Intrinsics versus UNIX Commands

Looking for Commands - whereis

Laboratory

Introduction to the vi Editor

Why vi?

Starting a vi Sesssion

vi Modes

A vi Session

Ending a vi Session

Cursor Control Commands

Input mode: i, a, O, o

Deleting Text: x, dw, dd, dG

Laboratory

Moving Text: p, P

Copying Text: yw, yy

Changing Text: r, R, cw, .

Searching for Text: /, n, N

Searching for Text Patterns

Global Search and Replace - ex Commands

Somo More ex Commands

Laboratory

Guided Tour of the HP-UX File Hierarchy

Introducing the File System Paradigm

System Directories

Application Directories

Commands to Help You Navigate

Laboratory

Configuring Device Files

HP-UX Device File Overview

Listing Device Files with ll

Listing Device Files with ioscan

Listing Device Files with lssf

Device File Directories

Device File Naming Convention

Disk Device File Names

Tape Device File Names

Terminal and Modem Device Files Names

Creating Device Files

Creating Device Files via Autoconfiguration

Creating Device Files with insf

Creating Device Files with mksf

Creating Device Files with mknod

Removing Device Files with rmsf

Laboratory

LVM Concepts and Structures

LVM Concept and Structure Overview

LVM Objects

LVM Physical Volumes

LVM Volume Groups

LVM Logical Volumes

LVM Device File Directories

LVM Device Files

LVM Extents

LVM Extent Sizes

LVM Extent Allocation

LVM Reserved Areas

LVM PVRA

LVM VGRA

LVM BBRA

Laboratory

File System Concepts

What is a File System?

File System Types

What's in a File System?

Accesing a File System

HP-UX Hard Links

HP-UX Symbolic Links

File System Comparison

Creating and Mounting File Systems

File System Creation Overview

File System Creatioon Commands

Creating the File System

Mounting the File System

Unmounting the File System

Automatically Mounting File Systems

Mounting CDFS File Systems

Laboratory

Maintaining File Systems

Monitoring File System Free Space

Reclaiming Wasted File System Space

Defragmenting a File System

Rapairing a Damaged File System

Laboratory

File System Backup

Why Back Up?

What Do Your Back Up?

How Often Do You Back Up?

How Do You Perform the Backup?

Data Backup with fbackup

Data Recovery with frecover

Network Backup and Recovery

Data Backup with tar

Data Recovery with tar

Data Backup with cpio

Data Recovery with cpio

Data Backup with pax

Data Recovery with pax

Laboratory

Additional Material

HFS Structural Overview

JFS Structural Overview

HP-UX

Accesing the System Console

Introducing the MP

Viewing the MP Backplane

Connecting the MP Serial Port

Connectin the MP Lan Port

MP User Accounts

Accessing the MP LAN Interface

Navigating the MO Core Menus

Low End

High End

Accessing the nPar Console Interface

Accesing the MP vPart Console Interface

Accesing the MP Virtual Front Panel

Accesing the MP Console Logs

Accesing the MP Chassis Logs

Accesing the MP Help Menu

MP LAN Configuration Commands

MP Serial Port Configuration Commands

MP Login Management Commands

Configuring MP User Accounts

Rebooting via the MP

Booting a HP-UX System

Operation States

Shutdown and Reboot

Boot Players

Boot Process

Autoboot versus Manual Boot

Interacting with the PDC/BCH

Interacting with the ISL/IPL

What Happens After the Kernel is Loaded?

Run Levels

Changing Run Levels

Starting Services via /etc/inittab

Starting Servicies vi /etc/rc

Laboratory

Configuring System Parameters

Starting A Preloaded System

Preventing Users from Logging In

Changing Login Special Characters

Controlling Usage and Processes with Run-Levels

Setting the System Clock

Potential Problems When Changing the System Clock

Setting the Time Zone (TZ)

Setting the Time and Date

Setting System and Network Parameters

Customizing System-Wide and User Login Environments

Setting Shadow Password Mode

To Switch to Shadow Password Mode

To Switch to Standard Password Mode

Setting Long User, Group, Host, and File Names

Setting Long User and Group Names

Setting Long Host Names

Setting Long File Names

Configuring /etc/hosts

Configuring New Systems into Workgroups

Configuring a New System into a Network

Configuring Root

Create the Root Home Directory

Configuring Users and Groups

Configuring Users and Groups with HP SMH

Adding a User with Text-Based HP SMH

Skeleton Directory

Using a Template to Add a User with Text-Based HP SMH

Making User Templates with Text-Based HP SMH

Modifying a User with Text-Based HP SMH

Deleting a User with Text-Based HP SMH

Adding a Group with Text-Based HP SMH

Managing Users and Groups with Commands

Automating the Process of Adding a User

Using the useradd, usermod, and userdel Commands

Manually Adding a User

Configuring Printers

Starting and Stopping the LP Spooler

Starting and Stopping Spooler Using Text-Based HP SMH

Starting and Stopping Spooler Using HP-UX Commands

Adding a Local Printer to the LP Spooler

Adding a Local Printer Using HP SMH

Adding a Local Printer Using HP-UX Commands

Adding a Remote Printer to the LP Spooler

Adding a Remote Printer Using Text-Based HP SMH

Adding a Remote Printer Using HP-UX Commands

Adding a Network Printer with HP JetDirect

Adding A Network Printer Using Web-Based HP SMH

Adding A Network Printer Using HP-UX Commands

Creating a Printer Class

Creating a Printer Class Using HP-UX Commands

Removing a Printer from the LP Spooler

Removing a Printer Using Web-Based HP SMH

Removing a Printer Using HP-UX Commands

Removing a Printer from a Printer Class

Removing a Printer from a Class Using HP-UX Commands

Removing a Printer Class

Removing a Printer Class Using HP-UX Commands

Ignite-UX

Why Install?

Install Sources

Operating Enviroments

Planning the Install

Initiating the Install

Laboratory

LVM

LVM Concepts and Structures

Concept and Structure Overview

Objects

Physical Volumes

Volume Groups

Logical Volumes

Device File Directories

Device Files

Extents

Extent Sizes

Extent Allocation

Reserved Areas

PVRA

VGRA

BBRA

Kernel Table and Volume Group Activation

/etc/lvmtab and Volume Group Activation

Activation Quorum

Running Quorum

Laboratory

Creating and Managing Volume Groups and Logical Volumes

Overview: Creating Volume Group

Identifying Available Disks

Creating Physical

Setting Physical Volume Options

Creating Volume Groups

Setting Volume Group Options

Creating Logical Volumes

Setting Logical Volume Options

Using Logical Volumes

Viewing Volume Group's Configuration

Viewing Physical Volume's Configuration

Viewing Logical Volume's Configuration

Extending a Volume Group

Extending a Logical Volume

Extending a File System

Reducing a File System

Reducing a Logical Volume

Removing a Logical Volume

Reducing a Volume Group

Removing a Volume Group

Removing a Physical Volume

Activating and Deactivating a Volume Group

Basic Command Summary

Laboratory

Configuring and Managing Mirrored Logical Volumes

Mirroring Overview

Non-Mirrored LVM Extents

Mirrored LVM Extents

Mirrored LVM Extents and Disk Failure

Installing Mirrordisk/UX

Extending and Reducing Mirrors

Splitting and Merging Mirrors: Concepts

Splitting Mirrors for Online, On-Host Backups

Splitting Mirrors for Online, Off-Host Backups

Configuring a Spare Physical Volume: Concepts

Configuring a Spare Physical Volume: Commands

Laboratory

Setting LVM Mirroring Policies

LVM Mirroring Policy Overview

Mirror Scheduling Policy Concept

Scheduling Policy: Parallel

Scheduling Policy: Sequential

Mirror Consistency Recovery Policy: Concept

Mirror Consistency Recovery Policy: NONE

Mirror Consistency Recovery Policy: NOMWC

Mirror Consistency Recovery Policy: MWC

Mirror Allocation Policy Concept

Mirror Allocation Policy Summary

Mirror Allocation Policy PVGs

Mirror Allocation Policy PVG Commands

Mirror Allocation Policy Commands

Laboratory

Creating and Managing Striped and Distributed Logical Volumes

Non-Striped Logical Volumes

Striped Logical Volumes

Striped Logical Volume Advantages and Disadvantages

Choosing Disks to Stripe Across

Choosing an Appropriate Stripe Size

Configuring Striped Logical Volumes

Striped versus Distributed Logical Volumes

Configuring /etc/lvmpbg for Distributed Logical Volumes

Creating Non-Mirrored Distributed Logical Volumes

Creating Mirrored Distributed Logical Volumes

Laboratory

Moving Data in an LVM Environment

Four Ways to Move LVM Data

Concept: Moving Data within a Volume Group with pvmove

Commands: Moving Data within a Volume Group with pvmove

Caveats: Moving Data within a Volume Group with pvmove

Concept: Moving Data within a Volume Group with lvxtend

Commands: Moving Data within a Volume Group with lvextend

Caveats: Moving Data within a Volume Group with lvextend

Concept: Moving Data between Volume Groups

Commands: Moving Data between Volume Groups

Concept: Moving Volume Groups and Disks

Concept: What Structures are Affected when a Volume Group is Moved?

Commands: Moving a Volume Group to Another Host

Commands: Moving a Disk to a New Controller

Commands: Renaming Volume Groups and Logical Volumes

Commands: Importing Volume Groups after Reinstalling

Concept: Importing Split Mirrors for Off-Host Processing

Commands: Importing Split Mirrors for Off-Host Processing

Commands: Exporting a Corrupted Volume Group

Laboratory

Recovering LVM Disks and Structures

Structures

Recovering Lost or Damaged Structures

Missing Device Files: Symptoms

Missing Device Files: Solution

Corrupt /etc/lvmtab: Symptoms

Corrupt /etc/lvmtab: Solution

Outdated Kernel Structures: Symptoms

Outdated Kernel Structures: Solution

Failed Disks: Symptoms

Activating a Volume Group that Contains Failed Disks

Restoring a PowerFailed Disk

Replacing a Failed Disk

Backing up the PVRA/VGRA

Restoring the PVRA/VGRA

Restoring the PVRA/VGRA: Complete Procedure

Restoring Unmirrored File System Data

Restoring Mirrored File System Data

Removing Corrupt Physical Volumes

Proactively checking PVRA/VGRA Health

Preparing for Disasters

Laboratory

Monitoring and Tunning LVM Performance

Performance Considerations

Balancing I/O Workloads: Concept

Balancing I/O Workloads: Symptoms

Balancing Workloads: Overriding the Default Allocation Policy

Balancing Workloads: Striped Logical Volumes

Balancing I/O Workloads: Mirrored Logical Volumes

Minimizing Head Movement: Concepts

Minimizing Head Movement: Symptoms

Minimizing Head Movement: Commands

Avoiding Fragmentation: Concept

Avoiding Fragmentation: Symptoms

Avoiding Fragmentation: Commands

Minimizing MWC/MCR Overhead: Concept

Minimizing MWC/MCR Overhead: Symptoms

Minimizing MWC/MCR Overhead: Commands

Buying Faster Disks and Interfaces

Other I/O Performance Factors

Laboratory

Configuring and Managing LVM Boot Disks on PA-RISC Servers

What's special about Boot Disks?

PA-RISC Boot Process Players

PA-RISC Boot Process Review

Interacting with the ISL/IPL

PA-RISC Data/Boot Disk Structure Comparison

PA-RISC Boot Disk Structure Details

PA-RISC Boot Logical Volume Restrictions

Mirroring a PA-RISC Boot Disk

Verifying a Mirrored PA-RISC Boot Disk

Booting from a Mirrored PA-RISC Boot Disk

Replacing a Failed PA-RISC Boot Disk

Backing Up a PA-RISC Boot Disk

Booting from a PA-RISC System Recovery Archive

Resizing Boot Volumes: Problems

Resizing Volumes in vg00 via a Recovery Tape

Resizing /stand via Maintenance Mode

Changing the MWC Policy via Maintenance Mode

Laboratory

Configuring and Managing LVM Boot Disks on Integrity Servers

What's special about Boot Disks?

PA-RISC Boot Process Players

PA-RISC Boot Process Review

Interacting with the EFI Boot Manager

Interacting with the EFI Shell

Interacting with the hpux.efi OS Loader

Integrity Boot Disk Structure Comparison

Integrity Boot Disk Partition Details

Integrity Boot Logical Volume Restrictions

Mirroring an Integrity Boot Disk: Configuring the Partition Table

Mirroring an Integrity Boot Disk: Configuring the System Partition

Mirroring an Integrity Boot Disk: Configuring the OS Partition

Mirroring an Integrity Boot Disk: Configuring the Service Partition

Mirroring an Integrity Boot Disk: Configuring the EFI Boot Manager Menu

Booting from the Alternate Mirror

Replacing a Failed Integrity Boot Disk Mirror: Rebuilding the Partition Table

Replacing a Failed Integrity Boot Disk Mirror: Reconfiguring the System Partition

Replacing a Failed Integrity Boot Disk Mirror: Rebuilding the OS Partition

Replacing a Failed Integrity Boot Disk Mirror: Rebuilding the Service Partition

Backing up an Integrity Boot Disk

Booting from an Integrity System Recovery Image

Resizing Volumes in vg00: Problems

Resizing Volumes in vg00: Using a Recovery Archive

Laboratory

LVM Consideration for Disk Arrays

What is a Disk Array?

What is a LUN?

What is RAID?

RAID 0, RAID 1, and RAID 1+0

RAID 3, RAID 5, and RAID 5DP

RAID Levels and LVM

Viewing Available LUNs

Disk Array LUNs and LVM

Disk Array LUNs and PV Links

Configuring PV Links

Viewing, Adding and Removing PV Links

PV Link Switchover

PV Link Switchback

Configuring Autoswitch Behavior

Switching Links Manually

Optimizing PV Links

LVM and AutoPath

Configuring AutoPath

LVM and Business Copy

LVM and Business Copy: Issues

LVM and Business Copy: Solution

LVM and Business Copy: Importing a Business Copy

LVM and Business Copy: Resync'ing a Business Copy

SD-UX

Introducing SD-UX

Software Structure

Software Depots

IPD

Daemons and Agents

Listing Software

Installing and Updating Software

Removing Software

Laboratory

Installing Patches with SD-X

Why Install Patches?

Patch Naming Convention

Patch Supersession

Patch Ratings

Patch Sources

Patch Tools

Downloading Patches from the ITRC

Installing a Single Patch from the ITRC

Installing Multiple Patches from the ITRC

Installing Patches from CD

Installing Patches from Tape

Installing Patches from Depot Server

Listing Patches with swlist

Removing Patches with swremove

Laboratory

Authors

This page was last modified on 2 September 2008, at 23:18. This page has been accessed 1,402 times.